What is bullying and what are its consequences?
What is bullying, Psychological harassment is a difficult problem to detect, the consequences of which can severely compromise the well-being of the person who suffers it? It is important to know how to recognize it.
Psychological harassment is considered any abusive, intentional and repeated conduct that threatens a person’s dignity or mental and physical integrity. Most of the time, it is a problem that others go unnoticed except the victim.
This type of abuse can occur in any life area, such as work, school or family. Besides, it can compromise the well-being of the person. That said, it is important to learn to recognize behaviors to prevent their spread and intervene when necessary.
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What is mobbing?
Also called moral harassment, it refers to the dynamic in which one person (or group of people) inflicts psychological damage on another in an intentional, persistent and deliberate way. This abuse manifests itself through comments, attitudes and manipulations, without resorting to physical aggression.
The stalker’s goal, rather than annoying, frightening, or displeasing the victim, is to make her doubt herself and weaken her reason. According to the psychiatrist José Luis Gonzales de Rivera, the harasser’s actions are as follows:
- Threatening, criticizing, ridiculing, stalking or persecuting the victim.
- Induce unpleasant feelings in the other person, such as fear, worry, insecurity, confusion, discouragement.
- Interfere with the victim’s mental processes makes it difficult to carry out their activities or tasks, overload them with demands and expectations that they cannot meet.
Types of psychological harassment
Psychological harassment can occur in all human relationships, such as family, partner, school or work. In this way, different types have been classified, according to the circumstances in which it occurs and the latent intentions.
School harassment ( bullying )
It is the deliberate, systematic and persistent mistreatment of one or more students over another. The attacks can be physical (exercise of force and generation of pain) or verbal (humiliation, ridicule, defamation, threats, aggression through social networks ).
Workplace harassment or mobbing
It consists of hostile, frequent and repeated attitudes in the workplace. These can be directed against one or more employees and are issued by their superiors or colleagues.
The objective is to intimidate, intimidate, subdue, subdue, or eliminate the worker by consuming him emotionally and intellectually. Some manifestations of workplace harassment are the following:
- Devalue professional effort or success.
- Make criticisms or reproaches for any action or decision made by the worker.
- Humiliate in public.
- Forcing the victim to perform work against their ethics.
- Prohibit other workers from talking to the person.
- Ignore It.
- Accusing without basis.
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According to the American Psychological Association, this type of harassment involves conduct of a sexual nature that is unwelcome or is considered offensive. Actions can manifest themselves at different levels, and can be mild or annoying, even dangerous.
Furthermore, sexual harassment is limited to psychological harassment and can also lead to physical assault in a second instance.
Also called virtual harassment, it is one in which the stalker uses digital media to humiliate or make the person feel uncomfortable. It can manifest itself in multiple ways, such as sending insulting, rude or threatening messages, disclosing personal information; spreading rumors or posting private photos.
Real estate harassment
It consists of the manifestation of harassment behaviors by the owners of a home or property to make the tenants decide to leave the property or cancel the pre-established contract.
Causes of mobbing
The causes of mobbing are diverse and depend on the people’s characteristics and the circumstances. Among the most frequent are the following:
- Feelings of jealousy and envy on the part of the stalkers towards the victim.
- Power relations in which the harasser seeks to demonstrate his dominance or superiority through abuse.
- Ideologies promote intolerance and supremacy of some people over others, resulting in racism, xenophobia or sexism.
- Pathological traits in the personality of the stalker.
- Competitiveness or rivalry within organizations.
Consequences of psychological harassment
Psychological harassment can have a serious impact on the victim’s well-being and integrity. Common conditions include anxiety, stress, isolation, irritability, guilt, depression, addictions, loss of self-esteem, insomnia, and mood changes. A serious point is suicidal ideation.
On the other hand, when bullying behaviors are prolonged in time, the person is likely to develop the following disorders:
- Post-traumatic stress: characterized by continuous hypervigilance and constant and intrusive recall of traumatic abuse situations. In this case, the stress and tension levels are excessive. Besides, there is an avoidance of related stimuli.
- Generalized anxiety: consists of excessive and continuous worry and rumination about various life areas.
- Adaptation: experience of intense discomfort disproportionate to the stressor’s severity or intensity. This causes a significant deterioration in different life areas, such as work and social.
- Depression: sad mood, feeling of emptiness, guilt, irritability, and the manifestation of somatic and cognitive changes that affect the functionality of the person.
How to deal with it?
In cases of psychological harassment, it is necessary to take the necessary measures and actions to avoid its devastating consequences. If necessary, a complaint should be made to competent entities. Some coping measures are the following:
- Offer and demand treatment based on respect. No situation justifies mistreatment or humiliation. It must be strongly implied that you will not allow yourself to be abused.
- Ensure that all communications are direct and unambiguous. In the event of hints or hints, ask for clarification and clarification to avoid misunderstandings in the future.
- Show assertiveness and act assertively. It is important to express yourself clearly, without falling into impulsiveness and without fear of the other’s reaction. Conflict is sometimes unavoidable, but this does not mean it has to be violent.
- Avoid feeling guilty. The mistreatment of others is never justified and you are not responsible for it.
- Do not isolate yourself. This will make the situation worse. Seek help from your circle of trust and express how you feel. It is also valid to seek professional support.
Harassment is not always clear, but we must be vigilant
It should be borne in mind that the distinction between types of harassment is not presented so sharply in reality. For example, there is sexual harassment within the school’s work environment or cyberbullying. Also, the psychological can be accompanied by physical aggression.
On the other hand, we emphasize the importance of assuming an active role in the presence of this violence. It is essential to avoid passivity. The further the harassment progresses, the more difficult it will be to solve it and the more serious the repercussions will be on the victim. When circumstances worsen, it is necessary to seek professional help, both psychological and legal.